FBS 2005 - Cleveland


The International Society of Biomechanics Technical Group on Footwear Biomechanics held their 7th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics from July 27-29, 2005 on the campus of Case in Cleveland, Ohio. This was a unique opportunity for a large number of footwear researchers and students to participate in an ISB technical group meeting at a relatively low cost in North America. The symposium attracted 129 registrants and had a scientific program of high quality.



The symposium was held on the campus of Case in Cleveland, Ohio. Case, Case Western Reserve University, is a private research university located in University Circle, a 550-acre, park-like concentration of nearly 50 cultural, medical, educational, religious, and social service institutions located at the eastern edge of Cleveland. Thwing Center at Case was chosen for the main meeting. This facility was a five-minute walk from the Case dormitories and The Glidden House, the two main accommodations for the meeting. Thwing Center was also within walking distance of major attractions such as The Cleveland Art Museum and Natural History Museum located in University Circle as well as Little Italy, a neighborhood with art galleries and Italian restaurants.

The scientific content of the conference, including meeting announcements, program format, session scheduling, creation of the program book, awards management was administered by Keith Williams and Joe Hamill. The logistics of the congress, including the facilitation of registrations, accommodations, transportation, meeting facilities, social events, proceedings publication, meeting bags, and catering was administered by Elizabeth Hardin. Meeting information was posted on the website of the group by Nachi Chockalingam.

Abstract submissions, reviews and acceptances were managed by Keith Williams and Joe Hamill. In addition, they also managed the award selection committees. Registrations, mailings, and facility bookings were handled by Elizabeth Hardin, Cathy Walker and The Cleveland FES Center staff. This staff had experience with organization of similar events. The sponsors of the meeting were Nike, Adidas, New Balance and RSScan.


Scientific Meeting

Benno Nigg and Martyn Shorten were keynote speakers giving a perspective on the biomechanics of footwear in the past, present, and future. The scientific program was very well received by the attendees, and the consensus of many individuals was that the quality of the presentations was at the highest level yet for a footwear symposium.


Business Meeting

A business meeting was held during lunch of the first day of the meeting, and Keith Williams, the Chairperson of the group presented a draft constitution for discussion and voting. Following several changes to the constitution a vote was taken to accept the constitution, passing unanimously. Nominations were then taken for various positions in the Executive Board, and elections will occur during the next few weeks.


Banquet and Prizes

The meeting concluded with a banquet held at the Glidden House on the Case Western campus, highlighted by the presentation of four sponsored awards The winners of the various awards are listed below. These four prizes were chosen by a jury of three judges: Bart Van Gheluwe, Ewald Hennig, and Ned Frederick.

Young Investigator Award - Sponsored by New Balance

Inga Krauss 
Medical Clinic, Department of Sports Medicine, University Clinics Tübingen

"Gender Differences In Foot Shape"

Pressure Research Award - Sponsored by RSScan

Jason Tak-Man Cheung 
Rehabilitation Engineering Centre, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

"Parametrical Design Of Foot Orthosis For Plantar Pressure Relieve Based On Computational Modelling"

Applied Research Award - Sponsored by adidas

Tsuyoshi Nishiwaki 
ASICS Corporation

"New Fitting Designing Method Based On Barefoot Deformation"

Basic Research Award - Sponsored by Nike

W. Potthast 
Institute for Biomechanics and Orthopaedics, German Sport University

"Changes In Morphology And Function Of Toe Flexor Muscles Are Related To Training Footwear"


The Nike Prize, a $25,000 award sponsored by Nike for research helping with a better understanding of lower extremity injuries was also awarded at the banquet. Manuscripts submitted to Nike were screened by Nike personnel with five chosen for review by a jury chaired by Peter Cavanagh with members of Joe Hamill, Keith Williams, Simon Leuthi, and Mario Lafortune.


Nike Prize Winner

Tine Willems, Witvrouw Erik, De Cock Anneleen, De Clercq Dirk 
Departments of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy & Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University

"Gait Related Risk Factors For Exercise-Related Lower Leg Pain During Shod Running"



The 2005 symposium attracted 129 registrants. The geographical breakdown of the participants is below.

Of these registrants, 17% were students and 56% were from outside North America. The location, convenient to many in North America, may have helped in attracting this number of participants. The more likely draws were the inaugural Nike Prize and the ISB/ASB 2005 Congress which began the following Sunday. Following the symposium, transportation via tourist trolleys was arranged for those attending the ISB/ASB 2005 Congress at Cleveland State University in downtown Cleveland.



Cultural, recreational and historical activities were available to registrants and their guests in an area adjacent to the symposium known as University Circle. The institutions included in University Circle are The Natural History Museum, The Cleveland Museum of Art, The Cleveland Institute of Music, and The Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum. Public access to this area provided green space for recreation with access to each institution no more than a five-minute walk from Thwing Center and The Glidden House and dorms. In addition, neighboring Little Italy provided restaurants and art galleries within a 15-minute walk from Thwing Center.

Social events were included in the meeting registration fee. We hosted a traditional opening reception on Wednesday evening in The Glidden House, an historical home on the campus of Case. This reception took place following the opening ceremony. On Thursday we had a wine and hors d'oeuvres reception in the poster area at The Wolstein Research Building on Case’s campus. The Friday evening banquet was held under a tent on the patio of The Glidden House on the last evening of the symposium. The Glidden House opened their pub to our meeting following the banquet.



The weather in Cleveland is generally nice at this time of the year due temperature and humidity decreases from summer highs. As it happens, we had a great deal of good fortune with the weather for this meeting. The mean temperature over the course of the meeting was 72°F / 22°C, the mean humidity was 69% and no precipitation fell during sessions. Unfortunately, many people arrived the night before the meeting as the weather was changing and they did experience a large summer storm.


Final Comment

Overall, it was an excellent meeting. Thanks to the organisers and the sponsors. We look forward to the next meeting in Asia.


All the abstracts from the conference can be viewed below:



Cleveland 2005


Paper Title


Benno Nigg

Footwear research - past, present and future 

Keynote Lecture

Martyn Shorten

Footwear Biomechanics - What does the Future Hold?

Keynote Lecture

Grau, S., Krauss, I., Maiwald, C., Mauch, M., Horstmann, T.

Classification Of Pts-Syndrome In Female Runners 

Pressure 1

Willems Tine, Witvrouw Erik, De Cock Anneleen, De Clercq Dirk

Gait Related Risk Factors For Exercise-Related Lower Leg Pain During Shod Running

Pressure 1

Anneleen De Cock, Tine Willems, Dirk De Clercq

Evaluation Of The Medio-Lateral Plantar Pressure Distribution In Barefoot Jogging As A Risk Factor For Exercise Related Lower Leg Pain 

Pressure 1

Mark Robinson and Mark Lake

Plantar Pressure Measurements During Barefoot And Shod Running - Relationships To Lower Limb Kinematics

Pressure 1

Chi Wen Lung, Saiwei Yang

Will The Hallux Deformity Affect The Plantar Pressure Distribution

Pressure 1

Deyse Borges Machado, Ewald Hennig

Plantar Pressure Distribution During The Menstrual Cycle Of Young Women

Pressure 1

Inga Krauss, Stefan Grau, Pia Janssen, Christian Maiwald, Marlene Mauch and Thomas Horstmann

Gender Differences In Foot Shape

Foot Morphology

Patricia Bax, M.Sc., Cathy Smits, M.Sct

Determination Of A Theoretical Ball Line

Foot Morphology

Makoto Kimura, Masaaki Mochimaru, Makiko Kouchi, Hideo Saito, Takeo Kanade

3d Cross-Sectional Shape Measurement Of The Foot While Walking

Foot Morphology

Tsuyoshi Nishiwaki

New Fitting Designing Method Based On Barefoot Deformation

Foot Morphology

Makiko Kouchi, Masaaki Mochimaru, Hidetaka Nogawa, Sadayuki Ujihashi

Morphological Fit Of Running Shoes: Perception And Physical Measurements

Foot Morphology

Blayne A. Hettinga, Darren J. Stefanyshyn, John C. Fairbairn, Jay T Worobets

Biomechanical Effects Of Hiking On A Non-Uniform Surface

Surface Influences

Amarnath Saripalli, Sara Wilson

Dynamic Ankle Stability And Ankle Orientation 

Surface Influences

Mark Lake and Mark Robinson

Biomechanics Of Walking In Different Shoes: A Comparison Between Overground And Treadmill Testing Protocols

Surface Influences

Ki-Kwang Lee, Mario Lafortune and Gorden Valiant

Effect Of Running Shoes On Mechanics Of Overground And Treadmill Running

Surface Influences

Bridget J Munro, Julie R Steele, Wendy L Gilleard

Perceptions Of Slippery Slippers: How Does This Perception Change The Gait Pattern Of Older Women?

Surface Influences

J.C. Gonzalez, B. Nacher, E. Alcantara, S. Alemany, C. Gimeno, J. Sanchez, R. Dejoz, J.Prat

Study Of Children Footprints Growth Using Geometric Morphometric Techniques


Karen J Mickle, Julie R Steele and Bridget J Munro

Overweight And Obese Preschool Children: Are Their Feet Fat Or Flat?


Paulien Kok, M.Sc, Patricia Bax, M.Sc, Cathy Smits, M.Sc

Foot Shape Dimensions For Design Criteria Of Children Lasts


Annaliese M Dowling, Julie R Steele

Should Children's Shoes Be Scaled Down Versions Of Men's Shoes?


J.C. Gonzalez, J. Olaso, S. Alemany, D.Garrido, M. Comin, M.J. Such, A.C. Garcia, P.Vera

Footwear's Influence On Young Children's Gait Pattern


Maiwald, C., Grau, S., Krauss, I., Mauch, M., Horstmann, T.

Intra Subject Reliability Of Kinematic Data In Preferred And Specified Running Speeds


Camara Tobalina, Jesus, Begona Gavilanes

Symmetry And Variability Of The First Part Of The Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Barefoot Walking


Mark J. Lake and A. Greenhalgh

Impact Shock Measurements During Running:Correction For Angular Motion Of The Shank Is Necessary


Patricia Bax, M.Sc., Cathy Smits, M.Sc

Determination Of Ball Girth From Ball Width And Ball Height


Sung-Chul Jun, Jong-Peel Joo, Hui-Sung Lee, Seung-Gon Oh and Sung-Jae Lee

The Relationship Between Peak Plantar Pressure And Comfort Using The Rocker Shoes 


Adrienne Hunt, Anton Arndt, Arne Lundberg, and Paul Lundgren

Midfoot Motion And Its Implications For Footwear Design


Wangdo Kim and John Tan

The Relationship Between Tibial Rotation And Rear Foot Movement


Howard Hillstrom, Jinsup Song, Benjamin Heilman, and Cristy Richards

A Method For Testing Shoe Torsional And Toe Break Flexibilities


Hyunglae Lee, Kunwoo Lee, Taekyu Choi

Development Of A Low Cost Foot-Scanner For A Custom Shoe Tailoring System


Bruce Barry and Peter Milburn

Traction Of Sports Footwear


Jane M. Cappaert, Jennifer Ocif and Bob Rich

Inter And Intra-Subject Classification Of Outsole Wear In Running Shoes 


Takeshi Asai and Kazuya Seo Takao Oda and Tsuyoshi Orei

A Study On Aerodynamics Of Athletic Spike Shoes


Jing Xian Li, Dong Qing Xu, Adam Heseng Wang, Kai Sha

Analysis Of Foot Shape Measured From Chinese Male And Female Adults


Ahmet Erdemir, Marc Petre, Sachin Budhabhatti, Todd Doehring, Steven Goske, Pavan Thangudu, Josh Considine, Donald Bly, James Wyllie, and Peter R. Cavanagh

Therapeutic Footwear Design: A Finite Element Modeling Approach


Michael Voigt, Marianne Christensen, Ole Simonsen

The Influence Of Foot Orthoses On In Vivo Midfoot Skeletal Motion During Walking

Inside the Shoe

Brady C. Anderson, Darren J. Stefanyshyn, Benno M. Nigg

The Effect Of Molded Footbeds On Comfort And Injury Rate In Military Combat Boots

Inside the Shoe

Howard J. Hillstrom, Jinsup Song, Esther Kim, and Benjamin Heilman

Does Sandal Arch Height Effect Foot And Ankle Biomechanics?

Inside the Shoe

Yi, kyung-ok, Kwon, bo-young

Differences In Vertical Ground Reaction Force And Lower Limb Angle According To The Use Of Insoles For Vertical Jumps In Rhythmic Gymnastics

Inside the Shoe

Ewald M. Hennig, Thorsten Sterzing, Janina Kroiher

The Influence Of Sock Construction On Foot Climate In Running Shoes

Inside the Shoe

Bin Xia

Maximize Biomechanical Benefits By Using 3d Cushioning Geometry

Pressure 2

Sharon Dixon and Kate McNally

Influence Of Orthotic Devices Prescribed Using Pressure Data On Lower Extremity Movement And Pressures Beneath The Shoe 

Pressure 2

Jason Tak-Man Cheung, Ameersing Luximon, Ming Zhang

Parametrical Design Of Foot Orthosis For Plantar Pressure Relieve Based On Computational Modelling

Pressure 2

Jinsup Song, Howard J. Hillstrom, Esther H. Kim, and Benjamin P. Heilman

Effects Of Sandal Arch Height On Dynamic Plantar Pressures

Pressure 2

Youlian Hong, Dewei Mao, Adam Heseng Wang, Kai Shao

Comparison Of Plantar Force Of Soccer Shoes Between Two Mid Sole Designs 

Pressure 2

Saiwei Yang, Yi-Ling Chiu, Fen-Ling Kuo, Chia-Chi Lin, and Yen-His Chen

Influence Of Walking Speed To The Peak Plantar Pressure Response

Pressure 2

Azevedo L.B, Schwellnus M.P, Lambert M, Vaughan C.L

Effect Of Running Shoes On Biomechanics And Subject Variability 

Shoe & Movement

Robert J. Butler, Irene Davis, & Joseph Hamill

The Effect Of Motion Control And Cushioning Shoes On High And Low Arched Runners

Shoe & Movement

Uwe G. Kersting, Kristin Sherlock, Kim D. Newman

Footwear Induced Changes Of Rearfoot Movement And Energy Consumption In Distance Running

Shoe & Movement

W. Potthast, A. Niehoff, B. Braunstein, J. Goldmann, K. Heinrich and G.-P. BrŸggemann

Changes In Morphology And Function Of Toe Flexor Muscles Are Re-Lated To Training Footwear

Shoe & Movement

Craig Payne, Gerard Zammitt, Daniel Patience

Predictors Of A Response To Windlass Mechanism Enhancing Running Shoes

Shoe & Movement

Frank I. Kleindienst, Katja J. Michel, Berthold Krabbe

Influence Of Midsole Bending Stiffness On The Metatarsophalangeal Joint Based On Kinematic And Kinetic Data During Running

Shoe & Movement

Dustin A. Bruening and James G. Richards

Articulated Figure Skating Boots Can Reduce Impact Forces

Shoes & Kinetics

Sang-Kyoon Park, Darren J. Stefanyshyn, Joong-Sook Lee, Luke Savage

The Influence Of Soccer Cleat Design On Ankle Joint Moments

Shoes & Kinetics

Karen J. Nolan, Charles W. Armstrong, and Craig Wojcieszak

The Influence Of Variations In Shoe Midsole Density On The Impact Force And Kinematics Of Landing In Female Volleyball Players 

Shoes & Kinetics

Elaine Yule, Nachiappan Chockalingam

A Study Of Dynamic Peak Force And Centre Of Pressure (Cop) Displacement, In Subjects With First Metatarsal Pain

Shoes & Kinetics

Jay T. Worobets and Darren J. Stefanyshyn

Normalizing Vertical Ground Reaction Force Peaks To Body Weight In Heel-Toe Running

Shoes & Kinetics

Katja J. Michel, Frank I. Kleindienst, Berthold Krabbe

The Effect Of Different Midsole Hardness On Kinematic And Kinetic Data During Running Influenced By Varying Bodyweight

Shoes & Kinetics